Wednesday, May 20, 2020

Maintaining a Tree Through the Next Decade

Specimen trees in the landscape need consistent care over time to ensure their continued health, proper conditions for growth and to prevent hazardous conditions that threaten surrounding property. Here is a tree care schedule developed by the United States Forest Service for a tree owners use and listed according to tree care type. Watering the Tree The key to newly planted tree survival is providing adequate water. Although the first 3 years are most critical, a trees watering needs should be maintained for life. Initially, a newly planted tree needs to be properly watered with an adequate amount to pack the soil, to remove root-drying air and to moisten the root ball. On adequately draining soils, 5 gallons of initial water should be enough. Fast draining soils may need more frequent watering than a slow draining soil. Year 1 - 3: It is most critical to provide adequate water during the annual growing season, between late spring and autumn.Year 4 and after: You can relax a bit on tree watering in later years but water may be needed during long periods of drought. Mulching the Tree Mulching a newly planted tree ensures that moisture is available to roots over time and reduces grass competition. A good mulch (organic materials like leaves, bark, needles and fine wood chips) should ring the tree base (over the critical root zone) but never touch the tree. No fertilizer is necessary when quality composted mulch is used. Year 1 - 3: Maintain the mulch level with no more than 4 inches of material over the roots (the wider the better) but not touching the tree.Year 4 and after: A tree appreciates a good mulch so it is appropriate to maintain adequate mulch levels annually during spring. Avoid using nitrogen fertilizers — use complete fertilizers only after a soil test. Staking the Tree Not all newly planted trees need staking to remain standing straight. Stake only if the root ball is unstable or the tree trunk is bending. Use only loosely tied, wide straps and limit the number of straps to a minimum for support. Year 1 - 3: Use tree stakes only when needed. Many tree owners automatically stake every tree not knowing that it is often unnecessary. Check all stakes and straps during spring and autumn for loose fit and alter to prevent trunk damage. All straps should be removed after the first or second year.Year 4 and after: Do not stake older trees. Cleaning the Root Collar Roots that encircle the trunk at the root collar can cause tree health and safety problems. A trees root collar is its transition zone between stem and root at the ground line. Proper planting depth can go a long way toward keeping the root collar clean and free of encircling roots. Remember that piling soil or mulch against the root collar encourages strangler roots. Year 1 - 3: Proper planting and mulching will go a long way toward solving most root collar problems. The first several years of growth after planting is when tree collar problems develop, so keep the collar exposed by removing soil and mulch. Overfertilization can speed up the process and make the condition worse.Year 4 and after: Revisit and check the root collar every 4 years. Use a hand trowel to loosen and remove the soil around the base of the tree until the first set of roots is uncovered. Inspecting Tree Health Checking a trees health may not only be subjective for a novice but determining the health of a tree is complicated and should be done by an expert. Still, there are things you can do that will alert you to tree health problems. Ask yourself these questions when inspecting a tree: Is the current years growth much less than in past years growth? Although fast growth does not necessarily mean good health, a dramatic reduction in growth rate may be an indication of poor health.Are there dead limbs, odd colors on leaves and bark or a patchy crown? These tree symptoms can be the first indicators that a tree is unhealthy and should be inspected in detail. Remember that planting a healthy tree from the beginning is the best way to assure its future health. Pruning the Tree When pruning a newly planted tree, only prune critical branches and no others! Critical branches are those that are either dead or broken. You can also remove multiple leaders to leave only one central stem. It may be best to postpone pruning to avoid transplanting shock due to loss of leaves. Year 1 - 3: Prune only critical branches or to eliminate extra leaders in the trees first year. You will have plenty of time to form your tree so only prune lightly in Year 2 or 3.Year 4 and after: Prune your tree for form and function every three years. As a rule of thumb, prune fruit trees every 1-3 years, prune deciduous shade trees every 5 years and evergreens only as needed.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Ethics of Human Cloning and Genetic Engineering Essay

INTRODUCTION When the Roslin Institutes first sheep cloning work was announced in March 1996 the papers were full of speculation about its long-term implications. Because of this discovery, the media’s attention has focused mainly on discussion of the possibility, of cloning humans. In doing so, it has missed the much more immediate impact of this work on how we use animals. Its not certain this would really lead to flocks of cloned lambs in the fields of rural America, or clinically reproducible cuts of meat on the supermarket shelves. But it does force us to ask questions about the way we are using animals with new technology, and the kinds of assumptions we make. To create Dolly (the cloned sheep), Scottish researchers simply took†¦show more content†¦The amount of animals and the amount of milk is very small compared with conventional meat or bulk milk production. Imagine you are a commercial breeder of cows or hogs, and over many generations you have bred some fine and valuab le animals with highly desirable characteristics. One possible application of Roslins work could be to clone such animals from the cells of one of them, and sell the cloned animals to finishers - those farmers who simply feed up the animals for slaughter, rather than breed them to produce more stock. Again, the breeder might want to clone a series of fast growing, highly productive animals in a breeding program, in order to test how the same genotype responded to different environmental changes. ANALYSIS Would cloning narrow genetic diversity too far? Before we look at the ethics, there are some practical problems to consider. One of the fundamental rules of selective breeding is that you must maintain a high enough level of genetic variation. The more you narrow down the genetic pool to a limited number, the more you run two risks. One is that you could also have accidentally selected for some other not-so-desirable characteristic along with the one you wanted. (Klug, 1996) The selected lines could have certain disadvantages in some other genetic trait. These would be evened out in normal genetic diversity of selective breeding, but if animals were cloned, there would be no selection. The second risk is thatShow MoreRelatedGenetic Engineering : The Field Of Human Biotechnology1490 Words   |  6 PagesGenetic engineering, also called genetic modification, is a set of techniques for isolating, transforming, multiplying and recombining genes from different organisms. Simply put, it i s the process of manually adding new DNA to an organism. Genetic engineering originated in the 1970s as a result of the discovery of several key techniques in molecular genetics. It is also referred to as recombinant (rDNA) technology. Genetic Engineering enables geneticists to transfer genes between species that belongRead MoreGenetic Engineering : Medical Perfection Or Playing God1280 Words   |  6 PagesThesis Statement â€Å"Genetic engineering differs from cloning in key ways. Whereas cloning produces genetically exact copies of organisms, genetic engineering refers to processes in which scientists manipulate genes to create purposefully different versions of organisms—and, in some cases, entirely new living things†, duplication of genetic cells is known as human cloning. Development of genetic engineering biotechnologies undermines the natural autonomy of life. Does genetic engineering interfere withRead MoreThe Controversy Of Genetic Engineering1369 Words   |  6 Pages Genetic Engineering, for most individuals not knowledgeable on the topic, conjures visions of sci-fi movies and humans being grown in a lab far off in the future. What more and more individuals in the early 21st century are coming to realize is that Genetic Engineering has already exceeded our wildest imaginations in a dark corner of a lab, outside of the view of the main stream public. Indeed, in 2017, genetic engineering is in full swing on both plant and animal life. Only from hearingRead MoreGenetic Engineering : Genetically Modified Food1229 Words   |  5 PagesGenetic engineering is a technique which uses biotechnology to change an organism s genome. Currently, this technology has been used in an abundance of fields, for example medical science, agriculture and industry. Furthermore, numerous countries have never stopped the research on genetic engineering because they think the technology of gene will become the main competitiveness in the future. As a result for the rapid development of genetic engineering. With the development of this technology, someRead MoreThe Genetic Engineering Debate Essay1411 Words   |  6 Pagesdiscussions of genetic engineering, a controversial issue has been whether genetic engineering is ethical or not. In â€Å"The Person, the Soul, and Genetic Engineering,† JC Polkinghorne discusses about the moral status of the very early embryo a nd therapeutic cloning. J. H. Brooke’s article â€Å"Commentary on: The Person, the Soul, and Genetic Engineering† comments and state opinions that counter Polkinghorne’s article. On the other hand John Harris’s â€Å"â€Å"Goodbye Dolly?† The Ethics of Human Cloning† examines â€Å"theRead MoreThe Benefits of Genetic Engineering Essay1459 Words   |  6 Pagesanother controversy broke out, do humans have the right to make life? Most of the concern comes from the fear of control over the production and development of human beings. But, those who are against cloning would most likely look the other way if they needed gene therapy after receiving a grim diagnosis. There are many aspects of genetic engineering and to thoroughly understand it looking into each is absolutely necessary. In order to understand genetic engineering, the key terms in this controversyRead MoreIs Human Cloning Legal? Essay1147 Words   |  5 PagesHuman cloning has n ot been legally used in humans because many people and experts are still discussing its effectiveness, worthiness and effect on humanity. Human cloning, also known as human genetic engineering, can be divided into two main types, which are therapeutic cloning, growing cloned tissue from individual, and reproductive cloning, genetically identical copy of an individual. Human cloning have drawn people’s attention because people are become more concerned about health problems andRead MoreEthics And The New Genetics1048 Words   |  5 Pages#1: Response Paper Dear Mr. Dalai Lama, In your excerpt, â€Å"Ethics and the New Genetics,† you presented the discovery of the advancement in genetic technology. You mentioned how scientist are able to change the genetic makeup of living things. Another key point presented in your article is the idea of cloning, where one is therapeutic while the other is reproductive. The article discussed that the advancement in technology and genetics should only be used to benefit people. However, you believedRead MoreThe Ethical Concept Of Genetic Engineering1157 Words   |  5 PagesThis assignment will discuss the ethical concept of genetic engineering and how it demonstrates its relevance to midwifery professional practice and maternity care. Before analysing genetic engineering and looking at the arguments as to whether it is ethically right, an understanding of what the terms and lawful procedures mean should be determined. In order to construct this assignment, multiple resources were accessed. These resources included analysing books, both hard copies and electronicallyRead MoreThe Ethics of Human Cloning Essay1294 Words   |  6 PagesHuman cloning is separated into two major categories; reproductive cloning, which uses cloning technology to create a human embryo that will produce an entire human, and therapeutic, which adopt cloning into field of medical practices to find a cure for many diseases (Kass). Reproductive cloning requires a somatic cell, a DNA-less egg, and a surrogate mother; as a result, it creates a new individual with the same genome, or genetic coding. The idea originated in Germany in 1938, but the first successful

Tito Vodka Market Expansion

Question: Discuss about the Tito Vodka Market Expansion. Answer: Introduction Titos handmade vodka was first produced for commercial purposes in 1997, when Fifth generation Inc. was formed by Burt Beveridge. In that year, only 1000 cases of the drink were produced and sold. Ten years later, the company managed to sell 160000 cases of the vodka. The company is based in Texas where it was first established and continues to carry out all of its production processes in the same place. Due to the significant changes in the market and the rise of many other companies producing similar products, the company has found it imperative to change the way that it reaches out to its consumers. Strategies that may have brought positive results in the past may not be as effective in this century for several reasons. First of all, the dynamic of the market has changed a lot. The kind of consumers that were targeted in the past may not be the same as today since their interest may have changed or they now have a variety of products to choose from other competing companies. As a result, Titos Vodka has been able to identify two new targeted marketing environments (Dawson 2014). Marketing Environment (Kenya) This term often refers to the existing factors that are likely to affect the way that a company performs in the market. These factors can be micro or macro (Armstrong et al 2012). Micro factors refer to those factors that come from inside the company. The strategies that the company has put in place, its processes, staff and many other internal factors often have the ability to affect the way that the company will relate with its consumers and target markets, which will eventually reflect on the direct performance of the company. Macro factors are those factors that come from outside of the company. Since they are not found within the company, the said organization does not have any control over them as it does on the micro factors (Levens 2011). However, these factors are just as important as they to have a lot to do with the way that the company will reflect the outside world, its audiences and consumers, and competitors. Since the company does not have a hold on these macro factors, the best that it can do is find ways of coping with the existing factors in a way that will end up being beneficial. For the case of this paper, one micro factor and one micro factor were selected to understand the chances of Titos Vodka performing better in the market. Micro Factors As has been elaborated, these are factors that come from within the company and can affect the way that the company performs. One of the markets that Titos Vodka should consider venturing into is the Kenya region (Martin Schouten 2011). For this to take place, the company has to put in mind the fact that Kenya is a diverse culture. The key ethnic group in Kenya can be highlighted as: With this in mind, staff diversity is likely to help a lot on ensuring the smooth entrance of the company to the United Arab Emirates. Staff Diversity This has a lot to do with the kind of people that will be employed at the company and the advantages or disadvantages that will come with this change (Kotler, 2011). However, with the changing times, the company has found it imperative to venture into newer and more diversified markets. That means that some of the strategies it may have out in place in the past may seem obsolete in this century. The company prioritizes workforce diversity to ensure it remains competitive in the market. Several reasons support the fact that this strategy is likely to work. For starters, the company needs to ensure that the kinds of products that it provides in the market can serve people from all walks of life (Perreault, et al 2013). It would thus not be enough to assume that the present products would serve the purpose. That means that their preferences are also likely to be very different from those of others. Having a workforce that is diversified would help in enhancing the diversity of the company. It is easy to argue that research and focus groups would be just as effective in getting to know about the preference of other people, but it not really sufficient (Drori Honig 2013). Tito's vodka may consider widening the variety of its products in order to suit various markets. For example, not all alcohol drinkers like vodka. There are several other types of alcoholic drinks that are avai lable in the market. So, this company may consider manufacturing these other varieties in order to gain more credibility in the market. Having people of diverse cultures at the company will help the company to understand better how to deal with different people. Employing locals would also be beneficial because it will help the company to adjust faster in the new locations by getting much assistance from the diversified employee base. Diversity at the company also increases creativity. Creativity is quite important in marketing since it ensures that the right kind of material is used to create the right kinds of strategies that will have a positive impact on the company (Wang, et al 2012). A person that has lived his entire life in a certain culture is more likely to understand the needs and operations of his people than someone that has studied marketing for ten years. He will know the right kind of language, where the product can meet the needs of the public and where this audience can be found. Take the example of the African state or any other developing countries around the world. If Titos Vodka is to bring its products to this place, having people who understand this region well within its workforce is likely to have a lot of benefits (Murray et al. 2011). Certain languages are likely to appeal to an American audience but will likely be seen as offensive to a resident of Kenya. As much as this may seem trivial, on a large scale, it has the potential of reflective very negatively on the company, thus making it unable to penetrate this target market. Marketing/ Business Implications The greatest implication for entering the new market of Kenya is the threat of competition from companies that have already established their base in the region. Several companies were founded in this country and had continued to strive here for several years. The company would thus need to put in extra effort to convince people to abandon the products they have been using and try the new ones bought in by Titos Vodka (Timsit et al 2015). A good example of this would be Aberdares Beverage Limited. The company is located in Kismu and it has a good hold in the domestic market. In fact, it is one of the largest distributors of alcohol an alcohol products in Kenya. Since Aberdares Beverage Limited has been in the market for more than ten years, the locals in Kenya are more likely to use its products compared to their chances of taking up a new alcoholic beverage. Entering new markets is especially difficult for Titos vodka since it deals with consumables, which are the most sensitive products to sell. An additional advantage that Aberdares Beverage Limited has over Titos vodka is the fact that it is an internationally recognized brand. It therefore does not have a problem with marketing and making its name known to its consumers. Recommended Market Entry Modes These are strategies that the company can put in place to enquire a smooth transition into the mew market. For the case of Titos Vodka in Kenya, franchising would be the best choice. Franchising refers to a system where one company pays royalties and fees to another company, usually more established for the former to use the identity of the latter company to sell its products (Jeanne Ranciere 2011). Using the name of a company that is more established in this region is likely to give Titos Vodka better airtime with the audience that they look forward to attracting in Kenya. One advantage of franchising is that it helps in cutting costs. The Company would not have to use as much money for setup and marketing purposes as compared to when it decided to venture into the market independently. Another entry mode that is likely to work for the company is a joint venture (Khanna Palepu 2013). This is a process where two companies come together for the purpose of enhancing their profitability. The difference however between a joint venture and franchising is that each of these companies can maintain its name and identity. This strategy while worthwhile may not be as beneficial as franchising in this case since the company would still need to carry around its name, which is still new to the audience in the target market. Marketing Environment (United Kingdom) A new company venturing into the UK market may not be one of the hardest things that Titos Vodka will ever have to face. This is due to the fact that there are various similarities between culture of USA and culture of UK. The country is stable in several ways, both economically and environmentally (Albornoz et al 2012). That means that a lot of factors would need to be put into consideration before the company takes the leap into this market. One of the important factors to think about is whether the people in the country will be able to identify with the products of this company. However, in recent times, the events like Brexit has some impacts on the UK economy. The purchasing power of UK citizens may not be the same as it was couple of years before. Having this is mind; the company will be well aware that some of its products are likely to do poorly in this region since the people are not able to afford them. Titos Vodka sells alcohol, which is essentially a luxury product, which may not suit all of the UK market. First of all, the company will need to split the market into two segments; for both economically stable and unstable, since there would be people that live below the poverty line index. (Johanson Mattson 2015). Assuming that the rest of the population would be able to afford Titos Vodka products, it means that the kind of marketing strategies that will be put forth will be different from those of the other people. Additionally, the company would have to significantly consider the pricing of its products if it looks forward to making any profits. High pricing will discourage the potential sellers, even if they are seen to be living above the poverty line. Another market that should be considered by the company is the tourists. According to a report that was given by World Bank, tourism in the region has been able to increase in the past year has increased by around twenty percent (Ahmed Zlate 2014). Considerations should be made regarding the origin of these tourists. It would be even better if these tourists are coming from countries where Titos Vodka has already established itself. For example, the company would get a push in the market if American tourists are visiting UK. Adjusting to new life and new products are common challenges that people face in new countries. Foreigners find many reliefs when they come upon products that they are familiar with since they use them back at home. Marketing/ Business Implications The good thing for the company is that UK business environment shares similarity with US business environment. It is correct that the country is currently undergoing much political unrest with violence having reported in some areas after the general elections were conducted. When such violence occurs, it is characterized by destruction of property, and unfortunately, most of the time it is the foreigners that are targeted most (Zeschky et al. 2011). That means that Titos Vodka would have to take the issue of security quite seriously while entering this market. Security for this case means that of its products and members of staff. At this point, diversity of the workforce would be quite essential. Whenever a company sets up in a region, they are scrutinized by the locals and governments to ensure that even if their intention is to make profits, the country too can benefit (Bingham Eisenhard 2011). Therefore, if the company sets up and employs UK locals, there are a few problems that may be evaded. The hostility from the locals is likely to reduce since they know that the company is providing a source of income for them. Additionally, the locals can understand the environment much better that foreigners and thus can warn the company of any impending dangers and the best way that they can be countered. Lack of sufficient labor is another risk that the company may run into should it enter the UK market. One of the reasons that have been given for a large number of people living below the poverty line is that fact that they do not have access to quality and sufficient education. That means that no matter how willing the company may be to employ locals; they may not be able to accomplish the tasks that will be assigned to them. This may force the company to have to take in members of staff that do not come from the area, and in the process, reducing its chances of expansion since it will be absent in the diversity department. Countries are prone to natural catastrophes such as earthquakes. These earthquakes are often quite great and in some cases, cause damages that are irreparable and sometimes leading to death. The company may thus lack the labor force that would be willing to be flag bearers in UK for fear of safety. Since for a while the company may not make that much profit since the products will be new, a natural calamity taking place in the country is likely to set the company may steps back in dealing with the losses (Johanson Vahlne 2011). Recommended Entry Modes The company can directly enter to UK market. However, there is no need to take unnecessary risks and the franchise model of operations appears to be the best option. Corporate social responsibility is a mode that would work to the advantage of the company (Ramamurti, 2012). This could take place for a year or so before the company decides to start selling its products to the UK market. Corporate social responsibilities are those activities that companies venture into that while are not for making profits, help to improve the environment and the lives of people around. There are still several people in UK that have not recovered for the post-election violence (Brexit case). Titos Vodka can, for example, help in resettling these people by helping them get access to proper living conditions and healthcare for those that are not able to afford. This can also be used as a marketing tool. For example, while resettling them, Titos Vodka can ensure that the event is widely publicized. They would also consider giving out branded personal effects like t-shirts and caps which will help in marketing of the product even before the company comes to UK. They may find that they have a large following among people who work with refugees since they often come from various parts of the world, and sometimes find that the countries they have been assigned are short of entertainment such as alcoholic drinks. Conclusion Titos Vodka is a company that manufactures and sells vodka to Americans. The company, having been in existence for more than ten years may consider taking up new markets. In this paper, the chances of its survival in the Kenya and UK have been considered. The UK market, though a bit hostile, may still provide a chance for the company to prosper since there is likelihood that it will find the right kind of audience for its products. The Kenya market may however pose more challenges for Titos vodka. This is especially due to the unrest that is in the country. For the company to survive in any of these markets, it may have to consider entry modes such as franchising and corporate social responsibility. It is recommended that the company should use UK as an expansion country. The above analysis presents that UK is a better option that Kenya due to number of options. On a scale of 10, the scores of Kenya and UK for different parameters can be discussed as: Parameter Kenya UK Political Stability 6 8 Existing Competition 8 6 Social Cultural Factors 6 8 Environmental factors 7 8 Economic Factors 7 6 Total 34 36 The above table shows that UK is better placed that Kenya. Therefore, Titos Vodka should enter UK market. It is also recommended that the company should use the franchise model of expansion. The management of Titos may not have much idea to handle the business in the foreign markets. The franchise business model would enable the company to gain knowledge from local partners. Reference Ahmed, S. and Zlate, A., 2014. Capital flows to emerging market economies: a brave new world?.Journal of International Money and Finance,48, pp.221-248. Albornoz, F., Pardo, H.F.C., Corcos, G. and Ornelas, E., 2012. Sequential exporting.Journal of International Economics,88(1), pp.17-31. Armstrong, G., Kotler, P., Harker, M. and Brennan, R., 2012.Marketing: an introduction. Pearson Prentice-Hall, London. Bingham, C.B. and Eisenhardt, K.M., 2011. Rational heuristics: the simple rules that strategists learn from process experience.Strategic Management Journal,32(13), pp.1437-1464. Dawson, J.A., 2014.The Marketing Environment (RLE Marketing)(Vol. 1). Routledge. Drori, I. and Honig, B., 2013. A process model of internal and external legitimacy.Organization Studies,34(3), pp.345-376. Eyring, M.J., Johnson, M.W. and Nair, H., 2011. New business models in emerging markets.Harvard business review,89(1/2), pp.88-95. Jeanne, O. and Ranciere, R., 2011. The optimal level of international reserves for emerging market countries: a new formula and some applications.The Economic Journal,121(555), pp.905-930. Johanson, J. and Mattsson, L.G., 2015. Internationalisation in industrial systemsa network approach. InKnowledge, Networks and Power(pp. 111-132). Palgrave Macmillan UK. Johanson, J. and Vahlne, J.E., 2011. Markets as networks: implications for strategy-making.Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science,39(4), pp.484-491. Khanna, T. and Palepu, K., 2013.Winning in emerging markets: A road map for strategy and execution. Harvard Business Press. Kotler, P., 2011. Reinventing marketing to manage the environmental imperative.Journal of Marketing,75(4), pp.132-135. Levens, M.P., 2011.Marketing: defined, explained, applied. Pearson Higher Ed. Martin, D.M. and Schouten, J., 2011.Sustainable marketing(p. 264). Pearson Prentice Hall. Murray, J.Y., Gao, G.Y. and Kotabe, M., 2011. Market orientation and performance of export ventures: the process through marketing capabilities and competitive advantages.Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science,39(2), pp.252-269. Perreault Jr, W., Cannon, J. and McCarthy, E.J., 2013.Basic marketing. McGraw-Hill Higher Education. Ramamurti, R., 2012. What is really different about emerging market multinationals?.Global Strategy Journal,2(1), pp.41-47. Timsit, J.P., Castiaux, A., Truong, Y., Athaide, G.A. and Klink, R.R., 2015. The effect of market-pull vs. resource-push orientation on performance when entering new markets.Journal of Business Research,68(9), pp.2005-2014. Wang, C.H., Chen, K.Y. and Chen, S.C., 2012. Total quality management, market orientation and hotel performance: The moderating effects of external environmental factors.International Journal of Hospitality Management,31(1), pp.119-129. Zeschky, M., Widenmayer, B. and Gassmann, O., 2011. Frugal innovation in emerging markets.Research-Technology Management,54(4), pp.38-45.

Thursday, April 23, 2020

The Characteristics of an Effective Marketing Mix For Tour Operators free essay sample

Declaration: I agree that I have read a d fully u dersta d the U iversity’s Regulatio s a d guida ce o Acade ic Misconduct and Plagiarism and confirm that: a) this submission is my own work; b) all quotes and sources have been fully and properly attributed and referenced; c) this work has not been previously submitted, in full or in part, for the purpose of assessment at this or any other institution; d) no effort has been made to subvert plagiarism detection processes of the University; e) this submission may be transferred to and stored in the TurnItIn Plagiarism Detection database for the purpose of plagiarism detection now and in the future. I agree that I have read the Student Handbook for MSc Programmes and confirm that I understand: f) all required work must be received within the published deadline; g) work received after the published deadline will be penalised in line with University Regulations; h) any request for mitigating circumstances must be made formally via the Student Liaison Officer, using the appropriate form and including evidence; the application and associated evidence must be received by the stipulated date. We will write a custom essay sample on The Characteristics of an Effective Marketing Mix For Tour Operators or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page BY SUBMITTING THIS FORM YOU AGREE THE STUDENT DECLARATION IN FULL TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION Marketing Mix for Tour Operators 1 Product ? Setting-up an Effective Service. ? Example from the Industry: Thomson. 2 Place: Definition and Overview. 3 ? Price The Effective Pricing Techniques. 4 ? ? ? ? ? Promotion. Setting-up an Effective Promotion. Marketing Approaches to Attract New Clients (Survey) Trade Shows as an Effective Marketing Tool Examples from the Industry: ITB-Berlin and WTM-London. Trend of Online Selling of Packaged Travels: US Statistics. 5 ? People. Example from the Industry: TUI plc. 6 Packaging: Definition and Overview. 7 Physical Evidence: Definition and Overview. CONCULSION ? Steps to Make an Effective Marketing Mix. ? Summary of Effective Marketing Mix Characteristics. INTRODUCTION This essay attempts to identify the characteristics of effective marketing mix for tour operators by pointing several characteristics from the industry practice and through reviewing the literature of tourism marketing. Tracking market trends through governmental statistics and tourism industry reports seems to provide guidance for effective marketing practices that may result on increased number of customers thus allows better profit opportunities. Marketing mix is the business plan and practice on product, price, promotion, and place. The way of managing these four elements determine the marketing method used by organisations. Companies are supposed to select the right distribution channels in order to communicate the target customers, at the same time, it is essential to set the product or service price which suite its quality (Hooley, G. , Piercy, N. , Nicoulaud, B. 2008, 50). In inverse of tangible products, services have five characteristics which seem to make its marketing more complicated, intangibility, perishability, heterogeneity, inseparability and lack of ownership (Ferrell Hartline 2005). Inseparability means that consumption of the service happens at the time of delivering it. An example of such a characteristic is the service of providing a meal in a restaurant; this service is consumed at the time of providing it (Abell, 1978). Such an adjective should highlight the importance of service delivery. Services need to be delivered in the right place, at right moment and in right method (Berry, 1995). Additionally, such inseparability may explain the need of relationship marketing (buyerseller interaction) as stated by Aijo (1996). Pure service is intangible because it is not possible to see or touch it. This means that services are an effort, not objects. Due to intangibly, it seems to be difficult for travellers to evaluate a holiday before consuming it (Berry, 1980). However, some researchers like (Cowell, 1984) suggest that customers may get tangible evidence from purchased services like picture taken during holiday. The high degree of possibility of difference in performance of services is defined as heterogeneity. The characteristic requires more emphasize on consistency in quality levels of services as buyers would prefer to know the quality standards of services when they purchase them. However, the production of a service depends on both of the supplier skills and consumer expectations (Reichheld and Sasser, 1990). Perishability is the management of supply and demand as products gets spoiled if not consumed in particular time. It is the same case with services, for example, in case a vacant room in a hotel is not used for any reason in a particular night or a tour guide service which was not demanded although facilities and staff are available. Thus, perishability characteristic requires effective administration of part-time staff and suitable pricing for peak and off-peak period. As stated by Johnson (1995), multi skilled staff is those who prepared to perform different tasks. Such employees will have the ability to contribute in supply and demand management for their organisation field. The fourth characteristic of services is the lack of ownership. The purchase of a service does not result in ownership conversely of goods purchases. The Characteristics of an Effective Marketing Mix for Tour Operators Lumsdon (1997 p. 25) argues that the satisfactory transaction between suppliers and their customers is what organisation may establish in order to make profit and/or community gain. Tourism marketing is managerial process which aims basically to satisfy current and potential tourists better than competitors in the market (ibid). However, it seems to be that an effective marketing mix for tour operators should be harmonised and reflect the brand A Characteristic of effective marketing adopted by the company. The business strategy should mix for tour operators support the marketing mix and suit management practices and decisions. An example, tour operators may need to (Business strategy is select the best choices of distribution channels to linked with marketing communicate their current or potential customers, at the same time, the product package should meet the tourists mix) expectations from both price and quality sides. The First Marketing Mix: Product The first element of marketing mix is the Product. According to Kotler Armstrong (2010, 76), products are divided to two main types. The can be tangible product or a kind of service that is intangible. The appearance, colour or the usage method are important elements of the product. These elements make the essential differentiation needed to distinguish it among competitor’s offers. However, the product includes the collection of offered goods and services, their quality, warranty and after sales service (Lawton Weaver 2005). The product of tour operators mainly are a kind of intangible services. An example to tour operator’s product is TUI range of tourism and travel packages. TUI Travel plc is one of the largest tourism companies in the world. The main office of TUI is based in United Kingdom and listed on the London Stock Exchange (tuitravelplc. com). TUI is the largest tour operator in Europe and operates in operates in more than 180 countries and serves around 30 million travellers in 31 key source markets (tuitravelplc. com). The main products of TUI can be divided in to three sectors, TUI Travel, TUI Hotels Resorts and the cruise ship business. TUI Travel includes tour operating, online sales, high street outlets, airlines and incoming agencies (tui-group. com). Example of Effective Marketing Mix: Thomson (member of TUI Group) All inclusive, Family Holidays, Luxury Holidays, Adult Holidays, Villa Holidays, Weddings, Cruise, Twin Centres and Safaris (thomson. co. uk). PRODUCT A wide range of travel options and holidays which suits different segments and target groups. Different packages tailored differently by considering the geographic and demographic diversity 180 countries and 30 million travellers. The Second Marketing Mix: Place The place seems to be a key element in tourism marketing mix as tourists are travelling to places (destinations) to get or consume the product. The place is where products are founded, the actual market, the potential markets and competitors (Lawton Weaver 2005). However, the place is where the product is available to be sold (Kotler Armstrong 2010, 76). To ensure the availability of product or service, tour operators deal with different intermediaries and cooperate with many agencies and intermediaries. The mutual benefits encourage different organisations corporate temporarily or in long term period (Fyall Garrod, 2004). A good availability of the product may also mean friendly transaction during purchase and pleasant consumption of the product (as an example, safe journey or enjoyable stay in a hotel). Tour operators should consider the right location (place) of hotels, restaurants, attractions and facilities. The new technology brings additional channels of purchasing products. For example, internet may be used effectively as a sales point. It provides the information and the ability for the customer to buy the tourism service online. The features of internet make transactions faster and efficient. The cost seems to be reduced obviously to cut the labour cost and some commissions which may be charged from some intermediaries traditional channels. However, tour operators should not rely on internet as the only distribution channel, but need to sell through different places and various ways to ensure wide market for their business, the thing that may increase the profitability of their operations (Kotler all 1999, 483). Multi-channel selling points to be made available by tour operators for their current and potential customers. Online A Characteristic of effective marketing purchase options are essential as e-commerce seems to be mix for tour operators leading the world of trade in most of fields and industries. Place means more than the availability of product like the friendly environment during the purchase of products and (PLACE) good experience while consuming them. As it is an important element of marketing mix, there are some steps may be put in place in order to satisfy customer and guarantee a good experience for tourists. Tourism marketers focus on providing the best service for tourists when as soon they reach the place (Briggs, 2001). Providing key information about travel times, sites, directions, maps, attractions, supporting facilities, alternative travel routes and travel methods should be taken in consideration by tour operators as a comprehensive effective marketing. The Third Marketing Mix: Price Price is the paid cash for product and services and is an important element of the marketing mix. It is critical to manage pricing carefully as it has a direct influence in customer buying decisions. The situation whether people are sensitive for price changes or not is defined as price elasticity (Kotler Armstrong 2010, 76). According to Lawton Weaver (2005), affordability is a key factor when tourists decide to choose a destination for travel. It is notable to that rivals in any market should consider price competition techniques tactics and strategies such as special offers, promotions and discounts to stay in a competitive market (Kotler Armstrong 2010, 76). However, marketing mix for tour operators should be built on effective pricing techniques which consider operational costs and competition environment. Service prices consider both production cost and the A Characteristic of effective marketing competitive environment. Market prices should be reviewed mix for tour operators and evaluated periodically to suit the seasons, geographic and demographic differences of travellers. (PRICE) The Fourth Marketing Mix: Promotion Promotion is the way organisations seek communication with their target customers. It contains the message which companies wishes to deliver about the product, service or the company’s image itself. Lawton and Weaver (2005) suggest that the main objective of promotion is to raise the demand by delivering good image of a product to possible consumers. Tour operators have the choice of using a range of variety marketing tools to promote their services. These tools may include sales promotions, personal selling, internet marketing, printed advertisements, publicity and merchandising. Also, promotion may be activated through trade shows and public relation campaigns (Kotler Armstrong 2010, 76). Source: Travel Weeklys 2012 Travel Industry Survey – www. travelweekly. com Trade Shows: An Effective Marketing Tool and Networking Channel Example of Effective Promotional Channel: ITB Berlin NORTRMORP Trade Shows ‘The ITB Berlin Convention 2013 has once again proven to be a highlight among attendees at the world’s leading travel trade show ITB Berlin. 21,000 trade visitors attended over 200 presentations, panel discussions and workshops’ (Source: itbkongress. de) (Source: itb-kongress. de) Example of Effective Promotional Channel: WTM London NORTRMORP Five Thousands exhibitors representing 184 countries and regions and more than 800 exhibitors at the WTM. Travel industry deals for more Trade Shows than ? 1,859 million of will be generated as a result of WTM 2012 (Source: wtmlondon. com). Sales Promotion is a short term campaign which may increase sales through price discounts during temporary period (DelVecchio et al. 2006). Personal selling is a direct face to face approach. It is used by large organsiations which are able to cover additional costs of such individual marketing tool (Ferrell Hartline 2005). According to Boyle (2004), the qualities of company’s communication have a clear result on customer’s perception thus leads to change the degree of demand to their products and services. Unlike the personal selling, publicity is non-personal way of communication. It may be produced as kind of announcement, editorial or news-stories regarding the company’s offers and deals (Belch Belch, 2001). Internet marketing brings additional benefits for both tour operators and travellers. It is obvious that internet allows wider publicity, larger audience, twenty-four hours a day selling time. Online presence results on reducing costs, more effective transactions, easier market research, clearer messages and fewer intermediaries and middle-men (Heung 2003). Tour operators work in a dynamic environment which prices, places, offers and routes are changeable from time to time. Internet marketing allows instant modification in all of this information and facilitates updates on websites with low cost. According to (Tsurumoto 2007, Papatheodorou 2006), Internet marketing have more positive impacts then website promotions and public realtions, it helps companies to extend their business network and enable them for better competition. The figure above shows clearly the increase of online travel business in United States comparing with traditional tour operators. Such a trend makes no choice for tour operators but to cope with the technology changes and use Internet to maximise presence, increase customers and stay as a competitor in the market. The Fifth Marketing Mix: People Tour operators are surrounded by people who are the stakeholders of their business. The tour operator employees (personnel), tourists (customers) and local residents are the three main types identified as ‘people’ who tour operators should consider as an important element of marketing mix. According to Lawton Weaver (2005), the raise of database marketing helped a lot in incorporation the ‘people’ in the marketing mix. Example of Tour Operator Marketing-Mix: TUI Group of companies PEOPLE ? ? ? ? Employees training and development Investments. International Graduate Leadership Programme. Bi-annual talent reviews. Established ‘Centres of Excellence’ which enable best practice sharing across the Group. (Source: Annual Report Accounts – TUI Travel plc) The Sixth Marketing Mix: Packaging Bringing together two or more components of products or services into one single product is called packaging, and this is a common activity of tour operators business. The package product will combine in most cases accommodation, transportation, visits to places or flight tickets in some cases. The Seventh Marketing Mix: Physical evidence The intangibility nature of tourism services encourages tour operators to try some physical evidence which may support or influence buying decision of travellers. Such tangible evidence seems to enhance the confidence of customers when taking a decision for travel. Possible physical evidence can be a sort of business cards, memorial gifts, other accessories or travel brochures. CONCLUSION The characteristics of an effective marketing mix for tour operators are several and each tour operator may find its own strategies that suit their company’s size, goals and situation in the market. An effective Marketing mix for tour operators should be built on continues research and evaluation of services provided, daily practices, staff skills and customer perception, needs and wants. The 7 Ps of marketing mix needs to be put within a marketing plan process which includes Analysis, planning, implementation. In analysis stage, tour operators try to know more about their services, evaluate them, seek feedback and analyse current resources of the company. It is the stage of identifying their position in the market, weaknesses and strengths. The second stage is planning which tour operators may apply SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis to identify what the company should do regarding marketing strategy. As tour operators have set the steps of best marketing plan for their business, they may to start the implementation stage and develop their own image, differentiation, marketing strategy and competition plans. A characteristic of an effective marketing mix for tour operators – for example is that business strategy supports the marketing mix. Business objectives is reflected by marketing plans, managerial practices and decisions are built on the marketing mix, and at the end supports the image of the company. It is worthy to mention that an effective marketing mix for a tour operator meets traveller’s needs, wants and expectations in price and quality sides, as the whole work steps made for this main objective. The effective marketing mix for tour operators should consider production costs and the competitive environment. The prices of rivals needs to be followed and company prices are to be reviewed from time to time. It is essential for tour operators to put in mind the demographic and geographic differences, thus, tour packages should be flexible for different ranges of purchase affordability. Trade Shows seems to be an effective promotional tool for tour operators. From the statistics, number of participants and visitors, it adds a great value for tour operator’s business network.

Tuesday, March 17, 2020

Yitzhak Rabin - An Israeli Her essays

Yitzhak Rabin - An Israeli Her essays In his life and in his death Rabin was hero. Throughout his life and deeds he showed courage, determination, morality and devotion to the Israeli people and country. If we went over his life stages we would see that him being a symbol was not for nothing. In every stage we can see an act or a deed of heroism. Rabin was one of the first people who had joined the Palmach which was established in 1940. By doing this he showed the spirit of volunteering and his contributing to others and to the country. Soon he became a successful commander of the Harel corps where he led the battles for freeing Jerusalem in 1948. In these tough and hard fighting he played a major role and led to victory. Although many of his friends where killed he has not lost hope and joined the teams who talked about the firebreak agreements. Later on he wrote about those days: I felt in my heart a deep feeling of moral responsibility towards the warriors whom by their courage blocked with their bodies the enemy from coming.... Rabin, who risked his life in the battles, has never thought about himself but on the people who fought beside him. He then made a personal swear to devote his life to ensure that Israel would never be caught unprepared to foreign aggressiveness. The service in the Israeli Defense Forces is one of the most important values in the Israeli culture. Rabin is a model for many people who served and are still serving in the army. After the Independence war he stayed in the army for many more years and promoted to the head of the Operations Department and to the Chief of Staff second in command. In those years he has made a huge contribution for shaping the army structure, training methods and relationships with other armies. After that he was nominated to be the Chief of Staff of the IDF the highest position one can achieve in the army. Most of his activities were ...

Saturday, February 29, 2020

Benefits of Cycling

Bicycling has been a long-time hobby which produces both long and short-term benefits. Its an enjoyable activity which involves being outdoors and away from the less beneficial pursuits such as television, computer and the refrigerator. Its a vigorous interest that not just the young and healthy can participate but kids as young as toddlers and the elderly as well. In addition, provided they have the proper equipment, disabled person can too. Cycling fits into a persons lifestyle easier than many other physical activities because it can be used practically, to go from one place to another unlike, say, swimming which is fun but much more limited by the time of year and availability. Its easier on the bodys joints than jogging while getting from point A to point B much quicker and with less effort. Chief among its numerous benefits, cycling is good for health, both physical and mental as well as good for the environment. One of the main health benefits of cycling is that it strengthens the heart, develops endurance and improves circulation which reduces the risks from coronary heart illnesses, one of the major causes of death. Gaining endurance also lowers the chances of contracting some types of cancers and diabetes. Muscles are strengthened and toned from cycling particularly those located below the waistline such as the thighs, buttocks and legs. Many of those who have weakened or injured joints and cannot run to stay in shape turn to cycling to help keep them active because it is a lower impact exercise. Maintaining a proper body weight is not just good for the ego but benefits health in several, well documented ways. A cyclist burns a great deal of calories especially if they are riding a good distance or at a moderate to fast pace. Cycling also has the benefit of increasing a persons metabolism, their inner engine, even after the ride is finished. Reducing body weight lessens the strain of joints making cycling a duel benefit for those who suffer from weakened knees. Weight loss, like improved cardiovascular function, lowers the risk for strokes and heart ailments. Another duel benefit is that cycling strengthens the immune system which, like reducing the chances coronary heart illnesses, lowers the risk of contracting certain cancers. Eye-hand coordination is greatly enhanced by cycling. Stabilizing the bodys weight while moving both legs in a circular motion and using both hands to steer the bike enhance coordination skills. Improving coordination improves agility, athleticism and reaction time, useful in everyday tasks, especially helpful as a person ages. Speaking of, cycling increases a persons lifespan via the health benefits previously mentioned. Its a fun way to get healthy and stay healthy while adding years to your life. (Markham, 2011). Another health benefit of cycling is improved mental health. Any type of exercise nourishes and builds the brain. Peddling a bicycle not only enhances the amount of blood flowing through the heart and muscles but the brain as well. The more blood that is pumped through the brain the more effectively it functions. As a person peddles it forces additional nerve cells to discharge which increases the formation of proteins and other compounds. This action encourages new brain cells to form. Cycling can double or even triple the number of neutrons produced, actually building brain function. Additionally, exercise encourages the activity of neurotransmitters increasing the efficiency of communication between both old and newly formed brain cells. Think of it as building a 4G network to replace the old 3G by taking a relaxing ride through the country or by getting to school or work on your bicycle. Enhancing and developing brain cells while improving the communication lines between them is increasingly vital as we age because as we grow older the brain contracts and those lines of communication naturally grow weaker. Bicycling protects and restores the brain and to no ones surprise, a larger, better connected brain functions better. Adults who exercise display sharper memory skills, higher concentration levels, more fluid thinking, and greater problem-solving ability than those who are sedentary. (Yeager, 2014). Cycling acts to improve environmental health too particularly if one rides a bike to commute to and from school and/or work. It reduces a persons carbon footprint and has been characterized as a green method of transport especially when compared to driving a fossil fuel burning car for all means of getting around town. Bicycles dont spew air pollutants and reduce the nations dependence on fossil fuels. According to the U.S. Census nearly half live closer than five miles from their place of employment. Total emissions would be reduced by more than five percent, a substantial amount, if those people rode a bike to work instead of driving their car. Vehicles produce nearly one-third of all carbon dioxide and 80 percent of all carbon monoxide emitted into the air each year. Shorter trips are proportionately worse due to engine warm-up factored into the equation. Cycling to work when practical would make a big difference in the reduction of the gasses creating climate change. Cyclists, ge nerally speaking, are in better physical condition than motorists who tend to be more obese which means cyclists use fewer energy resources in a range of areas such as food production and transportation. (Bicycle Buying, 2015) The benefits of cycling are numerous not just for the person peddling but for the environment therefore society as a whole too. Its a heart health hobby that enhances brain activity and reduces carbon gas release. Its also a fun outdoor activity which stimulates the senses which are dulled by staying indoors too close to the television and refrigerator. Unlike both swimming and running, cyclists can enjoy a conversation with a fellow rider. Cycling is easier on the joints than running and can be enjoyed all seasons unlike swimming. All-in-all cycling is a beneficial physical activity and hobby.

Thursday, February 13, 2020

M5 Reflection Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

M5 Reflection - Essay Example It is therefore easy to assume that teachers are supposed to do a better job as far as keeping up with science is concerned, nevertheless, teaching is a profession that is already labor intensive. It is might therefore become difficult for someone not familiar with the profession to separate scientific research from other pseudoscience. This means theories associated with learning and teaching at different levels may be appear as effective but they need to be tested on a large scale. Reseach also leads to the development of equity that ensures that individual develop a belief in value while being committed to the creation and sustenance of positive school cultures. Is also important is developing lifelong learning that enables individual to develop a commitment to implementing shared visions of learning that are backed by the school community. On the other hand, action research may be instrumental in appreciating the activities that take place in the classroom and identifying the changes that lead to improved teaching and learning (Whitehead & McNiff, 2006). Action research is important in answering questions concerning the efficiency of particular instructional approaches, performances of students and the management of classroom approaches. Research in education often appears to be removed from other aspects of the classroom and for many teachers; experimental research appears to be in contradiction of the mandate to improve learning for all the students (Armstrong & Moore, 2004). In this context, action research provides the benefits of studies in the schoolroom setting without the associated hurdles. The main aim of school-wide research is improving the school in terms of the organizations as an entity with an ability to solve problems (Erchul & Sheridan, 2014). Through recurrent cycles of research, the entire school, as a community should progressively improve to gain ability to work together in the identification of problems and solving them.